This is the block diagram of the most of regulated power supply.
regulated power supply Regulated Power Supply Block Diagram

Notes:

  • Transformer – steps down 230V AC mains to low voltage AC.
  • Rectifier – converts AC to DC, but the DC output is varying.
  • Smoothing – smooth the DC from varying greatly to a small ripple.
  • Regulator – eliminates ripple by setting DC output to a fixed voltage.

Some power supply circuits can be adjusted by add some additional components. The most of them had been placed inside the regulator block.

source: http://www.kpsec.freeuk.com/study.htm

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